Security: The knowledge and ability needed to protect the integrity of one’s information, IT systems, and digital assets.
Safety and Well-being: The knowledge and ability needed to counteract the risks that digital tools present to protect one’s physical and mental well-being (e.g., guarding against Internet addiction, and repetitive stress syndrome). Online risks can be classified along three main dimensions: conduct (e.g., cyberbullying; sexual harassment/unwelcome ‘sexting’), contact (e.g., face-to-face meeting after online contact; communication with individuals pretending to be another person), and content (e.g., exposure to pornographic content; violent/aggressive content/harmful speech; content about drugs; racist content) (Livingstone, Kirwil, Ponte, & Staksrud, 2013).
Privacy and Reputation: The knowledge and skills to protect one’s personal information online, and that of others. An understanding of the digital ‘trail’ left behind as a result of the activities one engages in online, the short- and long-term consequences of this trail, and how to properly manage one’s virtual footprint.
Positive/Respectful Online Behavior: The ability to interact with others online in a respectful, ethical, and empathic manner (often referred to it as “netiquette”).
Media Literacy: A critical engagement with, and thinking about, mass media – from being external spectators and receivers of entertainment and information, to being active participants within an immersive media culture (Hobbs, 2010).
Legal Literacy: Knowledge of the legal frameworks/concepts/theories surrounding the Internet and other digital tools (e.g., Copyright; Fair Use), and the ability to apply these frameworks to one’s digital activities.
Information Literacy: The ability to find, interact with, evaluate, create, and reuse information (broadly speaking; e.g. news, health information, personal information) effectively (Palfrey & Gasser, 2016).
Identity Exploration and Formation: The knowledge and tools to use digital technologies to explore elements of one’s own identity, and understand how the communities one is part of shape one’s identity.
Digital Literacy: The cognitive and technical ability to use the Internet and other digital tools/platforms effectively to find, interact with, evaluate, create, and reuse information (Palfrey & Gasser, 2016). The ability to comprehend and work through conceptual problems in digital spaces (Carretero, Vuorikari, & Punie, 2017).
Digital Economy: Knowing how to navigate economic activity on digital spaces to cultivate one’s economic, social, and/or cultural capital (e.g., earning money; increasing social connections; building personal brands).