Security: The knowledge and ability needed to protect the integrity of one’s information, IT systems, and digital assets.
Safety and Well-being: The knowledge and ability needed to counteract the risks that digital tools present to protect one’s physical and mental well-being (e.g., guarding against Internet addiction, and repetitive stress syndrome). Online risks can be classified along three main dimensions: conduct (e.g., cyberbullying; sexual harassment/unwelcome ‘sexting’), contact (e.g., face-to-face meeting after online contact; communication with individuals pretending to be another person), and content (e.g., exposure to pornographic content; violent/aggressive content/harmful speech; content about drugs; racist content) (Livingstone, Kirwil, Ponte, & Staksrud, 2013).
Privacy and Reputation: The knowledge and skills to protect one’s personal information online, and that of others. An understanding of the digital ‘trail’ left behind as a result of the activities one engages in online, the short- and long-term consequences of this trail, and how to properly manage one’s virtual footprint.
Positive/Respectful Online Behavior: The ability to interact with others (both individuals and the larger collective) online in a respectful, ethical, socially responsible, and empathic manner.
Media Literacies: The set of competencies and sociocultural practices that allow one to analyze, evaluate, circulate, and create content in any media form (e.g. print, visual, interactive, audio), and to meaningfully participate in communities and networks. “Media literacies,” in plural, include both “media literacy” (Hobbs, 2010), and what some researchers have conceptualized as “new literacies” (Lankshear & Knobel, 2007) and “new media literacies” (Jenkins et al. 2006). That is, they encompass literacy approaches that not only focus on individual engagement with media (media literacy) but also competencies that address community involvement and participatory cultures (new media literacies). Moreover, “media literacies” also include traditional literacies such as reading and writing.
Legal Literacy: Knowledge of the legal frameworks/concepts/theories surrounding the Internet and other digital tools (e.g., Copyright; Fair Use), and the ability to apply these frameworks to one’s activities.
Information Literacy: The ability to find, interact with, evaluate, create, and reuse information (broadly speaking; e.g. news, health information, personal information) effectively (Palfrey & Gasser, 2016).
Identity Exploration and Formation: The ability to use digital tools to explore elements of one’s own identity, and understand how the communities one is part of shape one’s identity.
Digital Literacy: The cognitive and technical ability to use the Internet and other digital tools/platforms effectively to find, interact with, evaluate, create, and reuse information (Palfrey & Gasser, 2016). The ability to comprehend and work through conceptual problems in digital spaces (Carretero, Vuorikari, & Punie, 2017).
Digital Economy: Knowing how to navigate economic activity on digital spaces to cultivate one’s economic, social, and/or cultural capital (e.g., earning money; increasing social connections; building personal brands).